Number 8 of the journal «Kazan Federalist» (in english)
Political-legal resources of federalism in Russia Àâòîðû:Rafael Khakimov As of 2003, 10 years had passed since the adoption of the Russian Constitution, which still remains the primary legal guarantee of the development of federalism. In 1992, the Federal Treaty was signed, but it turned out to be a conjunctural and now forgotten document. Other laws passed by the State Duma undermine federalism rather than solidifying it. Therefore, from a legal viewpoint, there nothing more reliable than the Constitution has been designed, in spite of the fact that some of its articles introduce an element of collision into relations between the federal subjects and the center.
Recent administrative reforms and their effect on ethnopolitical processes in Russia Àâòîðû:Emil Pain The current Russian power structure and numerous political analysts have spread the idea that in the times of the Yeltsin administration, Russia was disintegrating, while with the beginning of Putin’s era, the country’s integrity became more solid. I seriously doubt the validity of such assertions. Overly pessimistic evaluations of our recent past and excessive optimism in regard to the present and past of our Federation seem equally arguable to me.
Who needs federalism in Russia and why Àâòîðû:Leokadia Drobizheva Once the federal subjects realized the unproductiveness of the further disintegration of the Russian state in the 1990s, they reacted quite reasonably to the process of creating a unified legislative space initiated by the presidential administration. The high approval rating of the Russian president makes higher statesmen think that now it is a good time to fully centralize the country. The president’s unrealizable desire to have a unitary state in Russia and the preparation of the law On Distribution of Authorities between the Center and Federal Subjects witness that as well: one of the law’s initiators, V.N. Lysenko, even said that this law will turn Russia into a unitary state.
Issues in the improvement of Russian federalism Àâòîðû:Evgueni Pershin The leitmotif of recent research conferences can be reduced to proving the statement that there are no truly federal relations in Russia. However, a decade-long experience of building federal relations should rather lead us to the conclusion that it is high time to rethink our previous ideas on the essence of federalism and its prospects in Russia.
Principles of federalism in Russia and USA: comparative aspect Àâòîðû:Aleksei Avtonomov The comparative legal method is well-known in our country and is usually considered to be a method of studying legal realities. Of course, we do not imply the generic comparative method, which can be used to study various subjects in various disciplines. In this particular case, we will be using the comparative legal method, or, in other words, the specific comparison of legal phenomena which influence the cognition process in the course of comparison. At the same time, we should use the basics of the comparative legal method, i.e. features similar to those of any other comparative methods in other disciplines, as the methodological basis for cognitive comparison.
The Two Faces of Federalism Àâòîðû:Donna Bahry In the past 15 years, research on newly democratic countries has come to reflect two increasingly divergent views of federalism. For one school, the division of powers among two or more levels of government provides a critical anchor for developing democracy and markets. For the other school, federalism creates yet another set of problems that new democracies must somehow overcome. My aim here is to evaluate these two views, and to provide an overview of recent evidence on this debate.
Nation and State-Building in Post-Soviet Russia Àâòîðû:Gail W. Lapidus The Commonwealth agreement which was ultimately signed by the leaders of 11 republics in Almaty on December 21, 1991 had two key features: it rejected the creation of any supranational institutions, and it committed the signatories to recognise and respect each other’s territorial integrity and the inviolability of borders. The agreement thus created a fait accompli which smoothed the way for the speedy and universal international recognition of the new states, which in turn solidified and legitimised the agreed-upon arrangements and deterred or prevented destabilizing challenges to them.
Distribution of competence in a federal state: comparative aspect Àâòîðû:Milena Gligich-Zolotareva The distribution of powers is stipulated by the Constitution of the Russian Federation as one of the principles of a federal state. However, the process of distribution of competence has only recently begun to attract more attention on the part of the authorities, being a natural result of the functioning of the Presidential Committee on Preparing Proposals Concerning the Distribution of Powers between Federal Bodies, State Bodies of the Subjects of the Russian Federation and Local Authorities.
The practice of territorial-political construction in Spain and Russia Àâòîðû:Irina Busygina Models of territorial organization are highly nation-specific. I will attempt to conduct a comparative analysis of the territorial-political organization models in Spain and Russia. During the last 25 years, Spain has transformed itself from being one of the most centralized European states to forming and securing its own model of a decentralized state; in Russia, the construction of federalism is also still in progress.
The Development of the Federal Okrugs and the Future of Federalism in Russia Àâòîðû:Vladimir Lysenko Russia is at a turning point again. Ten wild years that can be compared to a social revolution did not give the final answer to the questions: are we part of Europe or Asia? Are we moving towards a market economy or toward oligarchic bureaucratic capitalism? Are we moving towards a democratic form of organization or an authoritarian regime? Are building a federal or a unitary state? Is Russia being modernized through mobilization or innovation?
The treaties on differentiation of responsibility between the powers of the Russian Federation and its subjects Àâòîðû:Sergei Shakhrai The negative attitude to the practice of agreements in federal relations is a sign of poor development of legal culture and legal consciousness. In our society, where the severity of laws had for centuries been compensated for by their non-obligatory execution, the notion of “agreement” is associated with an attempt to go around general rules and leaves an impression of a non-mandatory act which, if broken, does not cause any legal consequences.
The international activity of federal subjects: reasons, objectives and form Àâòîðû:Il’dar Nasyrov This article will use the concept of a subject of an ethnic state, which will be close to the definition of a region quoted by the Declaration of Regionalism of the European Regions Assembly. The term “subject” is preferable in the context of our research, since the term “region” has a very wide range of definitions which often causes ambiguity.
Bases of intergovernmental relations between the center and the regions Àâòîðû:Vadim Khomenko, Nataliya Kuliagina The political and economic aspects of the organization of intergovernmental relations first became a crucial issue at the national and regional level during the times of the collapse of the Soviet Union. In that period, the trend toward disintegration of the common economic space formed and developed as well. The federal center also demonstrated then that it was incapable of financing most of its former financial obligations. The chaotic process of decentralization of regional finances continued until the mid-1990s. Later on, there were developed more or less unified approaches to managing accruals and deferrals which mostly replaced former individual bilateral agreements.
A new stage of local self-government reform in Russia and the German experience Àâòîðû:Elena Gritsenko The current stage of local self-government reform is executed in the context of large-scale changes in the whole system of public authority; therefore, it cannot be analyzed apart from Russia’s federalism reforms, administrative reforms and the reform of the budget and tax system of the Russian Federation. This integrated approach has been outlined back in the Conception of the Distribution of Powers.